We concentrate on a tiny aspect of wallet security and to better understand what we do and do not do, this page explains the rough process of how we work.

What we do

To put it dramatically, we search for the obvious potential to empty all the wallets of all the users at once. Could the provider of the wallet, with enough criminal energy, defraud all its users at once, without this being detected before it is too late?

This horror scenario is possible whenever the provider has a copy of your wallet and thus access to your funds. He could at a certain date empty all the wallets.

In a slightly milder scenario, your wallet could start sending funds to the hacker. This is slightly milder as it would not work when your phone is switched off or you are without internet.

Also, if the wallet started emptying funds right after a malicious update, some users would probably immediately alert Google and others to stop the rollout.

Seeing that some wallets have millions of users, it is plausible to assume that some wallets manage billions of dollars. This would be a huge incentive for criminally inclined employees, even if the wallet was not set up to scam its users from the start, which certainly is the case for many wallets.

What we do not do

Our steps of verification

We take the perspective of a curious potential user of the respective app. We take all information from publicly available sources as we do not assume that potential users would sign NDAs prior to using a wallet. We also do not consider hard to find information. Our verdict therefore is based on what we can find within a few clicks from the Playstore description.

Once we find the wallet’s website, we try to answer the following questions:

Is it a wallet?

If it’s called “wallet” but is actually only a portfolio tracker, we don’t look any deeper, assuming it is not meant to control funds.

Is it custodial?

A custodial service is a service where all the funds are in custody of the provider. The custodial service can at any point steal all the funds of all the users at the provider’s discretion. Our investigations stop there, if the service is custodial (and by our definition not a wallet). Some services might claim their setup is super secure, that they don’t actually have access to the funds, or that the access is shared between multiple parties. For our evaluation, if it is a wallet, these details are irrelevant. They might be a trustworthy Bitcoin bank and they might be a better fit for certain users than being your own bank but our investigation still stops there as we are only interested in non-custodial wallets.

Is it open source?

A wallet that claims to not give the provider the means to steal the users’ funds might actually be lying. In the spirit of “Don’t trust - verify!” you don’t want to take the provider at his word, but trust that people hunting for fame could actually find flaws and back-doors in the wallet so the provider doesn’t dare to put these in.

Back-doors and flaws are frequently found in closed source products but some remain hidden for years. And even in open source security software there might be catastrophic flaws undiscovered for years.

An evil wallet provider would certainly prefer not to publish the code, as that would make audits orders of magnitude easier.

For your security, you thus want the code to be available for review.

If the wallet provider doesn’t share up to date code, our analysis stops there. The wallet could steal your funds at any time, and there is no protection except the provider’s word.

We are not concerned about the license as long as it allows us to perform our analysis. For a security audit, it is not necessary that the provider allows others to use their code for a competing wallet.

Is the published app matching the published code?

Published code doesn’t help much if it is not what the published app was built from. At this point we review if the wallet provider claims that the wallet can be verified to match the published code. We then go on and try to verify the app. We

  1. obtain the app from Google Play
  2. compile the app from the published source code
  3. compare the two apps
  4. spend some time working around issues that are easy to work around

If this fails, we might search if other revisions match or if we can deduct the source of the mismatch.

Wrap it up

In the end we report our findings. All wallets that fail at any of the above questions are considered high risk in our estimate. We might contact the wallet provider, try to find out what went wrong and report on the respective communication. We will list bug bounties and other observations that might influence the wallet security.

In the end, even if we conclude not to trust a wallet this doesn’t mean the wallet was out to steal your coins. It just means that we are confident that with enough criminal energy this wallet could theoretically steal all the funds of all its users.

Further considerations

We will list as we stumble into them things like

What could still go wrong?

The classification “verifiable” unfortunately means very little. It means that at the random point in time that we decided to verify the code to match the app, the code actually did match the app. It does not mean that the next update will or that the prior one did and it does not mean that the verifiable code is not doing evil things.

In fact, we believe the most likely scenario for an exit scam is that the wallet would bait-and-switch. It would see to how many users it could grow the app or even buy out a successful wallet in financial trouble to then introduce the fund-diverting “feature”. The evil code would not be present until the app is losing users (or funds under management) for whatever other reason.

Any stamp of approval, any past security audit or build verification would be obsolete. Therefore we don’t see our mission as fulfilled when all wallets are verifiable. There is a long road ahead from there. For users running verified wallets, the verifiable wallets would need actual code verification. Code audits. Before releasing the app to its users.

To put things into perspective, reviewing the code some 5 developers put out is a full time job. Testing the verifiability of a wallet is an hour of work the first time and can be automated.

To achieve a situation where most users are running verified apps, the release process would have to be massively decelerated and there would have to be strong incentives in place for security researchers to find issues.

Often users are in a big hurry to get bug-fixes and wallet managers are in a hurry to roll out new features but this hurry is standing against the security of all wallet users. Wallet developers “screw up” all the time and almost always it’s just some crash affecting some corner case they didn’t anticipate when writing the code and these crashes while highly inconvenient for the user who expected to use his wallet today, usually do not put at risk any funds in the wallet. This hurry does, however, put reviewers in the uncomfortable position of having to approve something that would need more review. Most reviewers are reviewing the work of their colleagues and trusting them is kind of expected at least by the colleagues themselves but all it takes is one slip up and the code might be compromised. And compromising code in ways that go unnoticed by an auditor is kind of a sport.