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Latest release: 3.0.9 ( 29th March 2022 ) 🔍 Last analysed 1st August 2022 . Custodial: The provider holds the keys
4.8 ★★★★★
10 thousand
2nd October 2019

As the provider of this product holds the keys, verifiability of the product is not relevant to the security of the funds!

As part of our Methodology, we ask:

Is the product self-custodial?

If the answer is "no", we mark it as "Custodial: The provider holds the keys".

A custodial service is a service where the funds are held by a third party like the provider. The custodial service can at any point steal all the funds of all the users at their discretion. Our investigations stop there.

Some services might claim their setup is super secure, that they don’t actually have access to the funds, or that the access is shared between multiple parties. For our evaluation of it being a wallet, these details are irrelevant. They might be a trustworthy Bitcoin bank and they might be a better fit for certain users than being your own bank but our investigation still stops there as we are only interested in wallets.

Products that claim to be non-custodial but feature custodial accounts without very clearly marking those as custodial are also considered “custodial” as a whole to avoid misguiding users that follow our assessment.

This verdict means that the provider might or might not publish source code and maybe it is even possible to reproduce the build from the source code but as it is custodial, the provider already has control over the funds, so it is not a wallet where you would be in exclusive control of your funds.

We have to acknowledge that a huge majority of Bitcoiners are currently using custodial Bitcoin banks. If you do, please:

  • Do your own research if the provider is trust-worthy!
  • Check if you know at least enough about them so you can sue them when you have to!
  • Check if the provider is under a jurisdiction that will allow them to release your funds when you need them?
  • Check if the provider is taking security measures proportional to the amount of funds secured? If they have a million users and don’t use cold storage, that hot wallet is a million times more valuable for hackers to attack. A million times more effort will be taken by hackers to infiltrate their security systems.
The product cannot be independently verified. If the provider puts your funds at risk on purpose or by accident, you will probably not know about the issue before people start losing money. If the provider is more criminally inclined he might have collected all the backups of all the wallets, ready to be emptied at the press of a button. The product might have a formidable track record but out of distress or change in management turns out to be evil from some point on, with nobody outside ever knowing before it is too late.

Help spread awareness for build reproducibility

Please help us spread the word discussing the risks of centralized custodians with Dunia  via their Twitter!

Do your own research!

Try out searching for "lost bitcoins", "stole my money" or "scammers" together with the wallet's name, even if you think the wallet is generally trustworthy. For all the bigger wallets you will find accusations. Make sure you understand why they were made and if you are comfortable with the provider's reaction.

If you find something we should include, you can create an issue or edit this analysis yourself and create a merge request for your changes.

The Analysis 

The original app description is translated from French. From the app’s Play Store page:

Dunia - The easiest way to transact.

Imagine an e-wallet that lets you send and receive money, save in-app with amazing interest rates, and do virtually all of your financial activities in one app. It is now possible with Dunia, the most reliable multi-service electronic wallet in West Africa!

  • With our updated client app, Dunia users can:
  • Send and receive funds from other Dunia users
  • Increase their savings thanks to an interest rate of 8% with our savings account
  • Make transparent payments in store using the QR Code.
  • Recharge their digital wallet at all Dunia merchants in Ouagadougou.

Managing your daily financial transactions just got a whole lot easier. Our app is designed to be intuitive and accessible to all users. Download Dunia now!

The official website, duniapay.net, is down and inaccessible. While there is no information on who holds the private keys, the Terms of Service (found on the archived website) confirms that the providers can suspend a user’s access to their services.

Section 9, translated from French:

If you engage in any of the above acts and we learn of it, we will consider it a violation of these Terms and we may limit, suspend or otherwise terminate your access to our Platforms and use of our Services.

This app is custodial, and as such, not verifiable.

As this app was removed on iPhone and their Twitter account was closed, we advice extra caution.